MT 1-20

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MT 001

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"First impressions by lamplight; clear problems in the demonstrations and experiments, what was seen among various friends.

Almost everyone who has sought to invent a perpetual motion machine has considered bringing about motion through spheres and thereby has hit upon the idea that through straight lines nothing would be gained for their purpose. Therefore, departures from the structure are present, as the first figure shows. A beginning student of mechanics can judge that with such things assumed nothing at all would be effected.

No. 1: The horizontal line must be rather level or have a slope such that one sphere rolls toward the center from the rim, and the others roll out to the rim from the center."

- Johann Bessler


MT_001 Discussion

MT 002

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"No. 2: Almost unanimously the mobilists for whom the spheres were the main principle have chosen a figure for the most part like this one; such a figure has already been encountered in various books on mathematics and mechanics, and from the figure the mathematicians generally showed the impossibility of perpetual motion, just as though one could not bring forth a better figure as evidence. In particular, Jungnickel, in his almost peculiar book titled Key to Mechanics, pages 243, 246 and 247, has presented three such machines and intended to prove and enforce the impossibility of perpetual motion. Sturm also uses this figure, and even the late Leopold uses it in his Machine Treatise, of which he prepared 8 sections but did not complete because of his death."

- Johann Bessler


MT_002 Discussion

MT 003

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"No. 3: Several mobilists have supposed that they invented the thing when they chose curves (and double curves at that) for the spheres, as the accompanying figure shows. Here is seen not only the outer sphere compartments but also a separate inner component with long curves. It was thought with utter certainty that one could induce movement by this means. If one only makes completely unbiased calculations, then one finds the opposite to be true. Thus it is not even necessary to build a model."

- Johann Bessler


MT_003 Discussion

MT 004

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"No. 4:Here the lines curve a great deal and are made up of half circles. It was imagined without doubt that movement could be obtained in this way; but the former invention and the latter are the same thing.

Granted! One finds out through calculation and on paper, on one side somewhat more than on the other side, that a superior weight equalizes; observe! Thus there will always be stability and no mobility; why?

Answer: because the friction, owing to the machine's own weight and heaviness, eats away all the supposed superior weight; sufficiently understood."

- Johann Bessler


MT_004 Discussion

MT 005

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"No. 5: Here the thing again has double curves like No. 3 and is only slightly different. This one runs the same way as that one; nevertheless, I have come across this same fantasy in the work credited to people who were of renown and who truly possessed much mathematical knowledge."

- Johann Bessler


MT_005 Discussion

MT 006

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"No. 6: Some mobilists have done something special by letting the spheres run out of the wheel into a channel at the edge of the wheel. Because they did or knew nothing other than what is merely recorded here, the thing can run no differently from what this figure leaves one to believe and conclude."

- Johann Bessler


MT_006 Discussion


MT 007

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"No. 7: Here it first appears as though movement should inevitably result, for the curved lines which convey the spheres from the light side outward are attached very close to the axle, and at the edge of the wheel runs the same formation as in the previous illustration. However, if one counts the spheres on the light side and then those on the heavy side and calculates the force accordingly, then the situation is readily shown and proven to be completely different from one's first impression, as it is said: great people err, too: they weigh less, then nothing."

- Johann Bessler


MT_007 Discussion


MT 008

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"No. 8: Here the spheres fall somewhat higher and sooner onto the thing and then lie more on the heavy side than they did in the previous figure, but one must also note: when as many of the spheres lie at the light side, further out, toward the edge, an equilibrium is caused as in the two previous illustrations."

- Johann Bessler


MT_008 Discussion


MT 009

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"No. 9: Because one has learned that little is to be accomplished with the sphere-wheels like those just now seen in the figures and diagrams, one speculates on another principle, namely: on weights! In all places where I have found weight-figures, these weights are seen to be simple and nothing is attached to the belts or chains. Such is the case with Leopold, but nothing is to be accomplished with his thing unless one acts out of my connectedness principle; but here I do not yet wish to show or discuss the figure for the time being."

- Johann Bessler


MT_009 Discussion

MT 010

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"No. 10: This is exactly the previous model, except that the weight-poles are more curved and longer. The principle is good, but the figure is not yet complete until I delineate it much differently at the appropriate place and indicate the correct handle-construction."

- Johann Bessler


MT_010 Discussion

MT 011

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"No. 11: This figure is doubled, as one can see, and the form does not involve much, but there is more in it than meets the eye, as will be seen when I pull back the curtain and disclose the correct principle at the appropriate place, as mentioned previously."

- Johann Bessler


MT_011 Discussion

MT 012

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"No. 12: This only shows the present and previous weight-principle in passing: one is able to discern somewhat below here at A and downward that the weights do not hang very far out but lie nearer the center, and, moreover, upon revolution the weights do not fling out very much to the side and cause a great shaking."

- Johann Bessler


MT_012 Discussion

MT 013

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"No. 13: This is a new weight-invention, with no belts or chains but each weight is separate and free except that each has an interval arm C with which it forms an angle, and on the cylinder hangs a figure which has below a weight in the shape of a half-moon and above a small wheel B over which the arms C sweep and lift themselves up at D. This invention would be very good for running if not so much friction were present or someone was available up by D to always lift up the weight with lightning speed."

- Johann Bessler


MT_013 Discussion

MT 014

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"No. 14: This invention is somewhat speculative, and the internal cross-tensions with the weights are movable; therefore, when the weights raise up one another, the cross-tensions are pulled up with their weights at the same time. What is objectionable about this model, what to learn from it and how it can and may be used, will all be treated later."

- Johann Bessler


MT_014 Discussion

MT 015

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"No. 15: This ratchet-wheel derives from the previous model, except that the tensions are somewhat longer and have an additional special weight at the external ends. From this drawing alone, however, nothing of the prime mover's source can be seen or deduced although the figure shows the superior weight."

- Johann Bessler


MT_015 Discussion


MT 016

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"No. 16: This model shows how the weights are connected and how they raise the internal spheres at A up and around. The accompanying special figure shows how the edge of the wheel appears at the tensions when it is opened."

- Johann Bessler


MT_016 Discussion


MT 017

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"No. 17: Some speculators have gone further still and have imagined lifting up certain weights and effecting operation through several springs, and in this instance the figure has a good and large appearance. An acute mind will readily see and grasp what to make of this thing."

- Johann Bessler


MT_017 Discussion


MT 018

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"No. 18: This is the previous spring-model, and it seems to be good, but seeming is different from being. In the meantime, the principle should not be disdained or entirely disregarded, for it says more than it shows. I, however, will show more than speak of it at the appropriate place."

- Johann Bessler


MT_018 Discussion


MT 019

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"No. 19: This figure may be called a mere demonstration. There are nothing but levers with weights at the front ends of the levers, and if they are not very useful, they are also not harmful most of the time. A good friend, however, was violently injured by them. I cannot discuss it further. He endured more than I can mention here."

- Johann Bessler


MT_019 Discussion


MT 020

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"No. 20: Here the previous levers work somewhat more peculiarly and raise up special weights and turn outward to the over balance. For this reason side A is always heavier, my friend supposed but I denied. I then reminded him to harness the horse in front."

- Johann Bessler


MT_020 Discussion

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